Magic Campfire Starts
INFORMAZIONI SUL TESTO / DOCUMENTO
Titolo Documento..........: "Magic Campfire Starts"
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Descrizione del Documento.: Elenco di metodi per rendere "Magico" l'inizio
di un fuoco da campo.
Contenuti Educativi.......: L'atmosfera di un fuoco e` fondamentale per
poter passare i propri contenuti educativi.
Pertanto questa tecnica puo` essere molto utile.
Quota di Registrazione....: Distribuibile liberamente
INFORMAZIONI SULL'AUTORE E SULLA SUA REPERIBILITA'
Cognome e nome..: Bowman, Stewart
Indirizzo.......: Whitby, Ontario, Canada
Cognome e Nome..: Lucrezi Gino
Indirizzo.......: Via dei Giardini 18
CAP/Citta'/Prov.: 67100 L'Aquila
Data di Nascita.: 7/1/1969
BBS di appoggio.: Gilwell BBS
Nodo ScoutNet...: 1907:395/101
Altro Indirizzo.: firstname.lastname@example.org
Scouter Stewart Bowman
8th Whitby Scout Troop
INTRODUCTIONThe following compilation of "Magic
Campfire Starts" has been collected over a period of years and from a variety of
resources. Although new methods have been added to this production, the core of
ideas was submitted to The Leader magazine in April 1992 and a modified version
appeared in print in the October 1992 issue of
The Leader magazine omitted any of
the chemical based methods submitted, however the reasons were valid and totally
understandable. I have included a full range of magic fire starts
in this booklet as I trust that recipients, who intend to
practise and refine the art of magic fire starts, will
exercise due care and diligence in the attempts to try some or any of the
everyone who may wish to try these ideas to be careful. I accept no
responsibility for the results of your efforts,
wether they be good or bad.
I do however maintain a strong
interest in continuing to build and refine the ideas presented here. I would be
very interested in hearing from users of this material, your comments on the
content and any new ideas that you may have used.
Good Luck, and have fun !
Yours in Scouting,
Scouter Stewart Bowman,
A WORD OF CAUTIONUnless you are very comfortable
with the ideas presented here, the results may not always conform to your
remember Murphy's Law !
With a little forethought, care and caution you can maximize
opportunity for success and minimize the chance for failure.
Don't interpret the following as
rules, they are merely
clarifying the common-sense approach that most of use anyways....
1. These ideas are
not games and should not be approached as if
2. I know this is contradictory, but
only people in full control of their mental faculties should try these. The
contradiction being that you've got to be slightly off balance to be an
adult scouter anyways !
extreme caution when dealing with corrosive,
poisonous, inflammatory material
4. Practise the chosen
fire start several times before you actually use it in front of an audience, and
sufficient supplies on hand for your practise runs.
- Always mix and use chemicals outdoors
- Follow instructions to the letter. Do not experiment
- Never throw a lighted match into a mixture to ignite
- Avoid large quantities - more is NOT better
5. Check reaction times between
activation and ignition as this will help you plan the story that you will use
in conjunction with the fire start. Become familiar with the "noises" that
may accompany certain of the fire starts.
6. Always have a "Plan B" ready if "Plan A" fails - and it
will, sooner or later.
CAMPFIRE ETIQUETTEThere are a number of other
resources covering the structure and contents of a well planned formal campfire.
Repeating these concepts here would be somewhat redundant, but I have taken the
liberty of including a copy of an excellent article on campfires that appeared
in the June/July '89 issue of The Leader (Appendix III). There is one aspect,
however, that I feel does warrant
repetition here and that is how we conduct ourselves at the campfire.
are 3 basic practises which we try to follow at every
formal campfire :
campfires I've attended or lead, the later point is sometimes not controlled too
well. Scouter, please make sure that your scouts are not the ones disrupting the
campfire. Have them show proper respect towards the efforts of the Campfire
- No flashlights - we have the fire to light our way
- No Clapping or Booing - that's why we have 'cheers'
- No Talking - unless you're involved in an activity, talking
spoils the mood and detracts from whatever is going on
FIRE LAY CONSTRUCTIONThere are a number of
different ways to build your fire in
preparation for the magic fire start.
Where pre-positioning of the
fire-start mechanism is involved, the Council (or Pyramid) fire lay is the
preferred style. By building the various layers with dry kindling between the
wood pieces, you can easily conceal your fire start material. The natural
structure of this style of fire also leaves a 'chamber' in the centre that is
just what you need to place your fire start mechanism in, so that any material
that has to be added to cause
ignition can drop on to the mechanism.
Should your fire start involve
material being flown in - such as for the 'Flaming Arrow' fire start - then the
Tepee style fire lay might be the choice. Where the 'arrow' enters the fire lay,
an opening can be left in the fire material which can be well
packed with dry kindling and other quick combustibles.
If your personal favourite is the Log Cabin style, this can
also be used quite nicely with some of these magic fire start ideas. This
particular style is well suited to electrical based fire starts where the
ignition mechanism can be placed in the middle
of the fire lay and yet still be hidden by kindling.
One item that
I strongly discourage from being included in any fire lay - regardless of the
weather conditions - is liquid fuel (white gas; naphtha; charcoal starter fuel,
etc.) as the results can be somewhat unpredictable if used with some of the
ideas presented here. Any scouter who needs this to get a fire going is probably
not suited to trying Magic Fire Start Ideas (see page 3,
A Word of Caution, Item #2).
SETTING THE SCENEBefore everyone gets to the
campfire, you can do a lot to prepare the scene and get everyone in the right
frame of mind. Three ideas I've seen work very well, but are more appropriate at
a District (or higher) camp(oree) where you have a large number of
The first involves
gathering everyone together away from the campfire area. This avoids disruption
or delays at the fire itself, when groups arrive late. It also gives the Camp
Leader an opportunity to go through any last minute instructions.
When ready, everyone can then walk quietly in file and form
around the fire site.
second idea, coupled with the first, solves the problem of everyone not quite
knowing where to stand when they get around the fire. Since we are talking about
a formal campfire, reinforce this by pre-determining and marking the
circumference of the fire site with suitable markers and establish an 'entrance'
to this area through a flag honour guard. The Campfire Leader can then lead
everyone through the honour guard and around the boundary line. By the time the
leader comes back around to the perimeter to the entrance way, everyone else who
followed him will be
properly positioned around the fire.
The last idea is neat and very
effective. Although you can mark the perimeter of the campfire circle in a
number of ways, my personal favourite has involved placing lighted candles in
brown paper bags. To do this you need a supply of small brown bags, then add a
couple of handfuls of sand into each bag. The sand not only keeps the bag
anchored on the ground, but it also keeps the
neck of the bag open and forms a base in which you place a candle.
If you want to get really clever with this idea, a normal
household emergency type candle will burn down at an approximate rate of 2
inches per hour. If you've planned a one hour campfire, anchor the
candle with about 2 inches left above the level of the sand.
Pre-position the bags around the perimeter of your campfire
circle and have a couple of helpers (depending on the number of candles) light
the candles as participants are being lead towards
the fire area. This looks really neat for those approaching the area.
Hopefully, if things go right, your perimeter candles will
keep your audience from goofing around too much (since they can now be seen ?),
will stop them creeping ever closer to the campfire ('cause they don't want to
get too close to the candles ?) and
will nicely close off the campfire as they all burn down around
about the same time - yeh, right ! But give it a try anyways.
you wish to be a little more creative or formal in the illumination of your
campfire circle, there are a number of
styles of 'torches' that can be made.
As with any matters dealing with
open flames, please make sure that safety is uppermost in your thoughts when
placement, proximity to people, etc..
THE USE OF STORY'SSince we frequently arrange camps
with a theme, why not evolve your campfire also around a theme which could
further impact both
your campfire opening comments and the method of lighting.
In any event, magic
fire starts deserve to be supported with a story. In determining the story to
use remember that it should in some way 'explain' the magic involved; it could
get participants active in the fire start itself; and it will enable you to set
up particular timing prompts if the fire start needs assistance from
Mechanical Fire Starts #2 & #3
include related stories that also explain the fire start , but here are a couple
of others that you
could adopt & adapt.
Peter the Elf"While getting the wood ready for the
fore tonight, I came across a small wood- elf trapped in the underbrush. Since a
scouter is always kind, considerate and helpful, I helped free him. In return he
promised to help me if I ever needed it. All I have to
do is call."
"Since this is the first time I've
ever met a wood-elf, I've no idea if he will keep his promise to me. Maybe we
should see if he
will help us to light this fire ?"
Shout out - "Peter the Elf, will you light this fire for me
no response. Call a second time, still nothing happens.
"Maybe he can't hear my voice. Let's
all shout - Peter the Elf,
will you light this fire for me ?"
Time the fire start so that the fire
lay ignites after the last
The Indian Pow-Wow"Some of you may know that, not
very far from here is land considered sacred by the indians who used to live in
this area. No one can remember what this land was used for, but the scholars
think it was where the tribe used to get together for special councils and
pow-wows. It's funny, but there's no historical
evidence to support this and its all based on local legend."
of you may have noticed the old farm near the camp site entrance. Old Charlie
lives there and he's become quite an
authority on local indian legends."
"One of the story's he tells is of
how the indians used to signal that there was a pow-wow about to start. Once all
the council members were around the circle, they would signal that they were all
present by stamping their feet on the ground. Like this...."
Get everyone to join in.
"At that signal the
Council Chief would send a fire arrow into
the air to signal the start of the pow-wow."
These ideas should give
you a bit of a start in developing your own story's, and don't be afraid to
tailor the fire start to the camp theme. The theme could be space, pioneering,
circus, UFO's; whatever. A little creativity will enable you to come up with a
really great story to introduce the fire.
MAGIC CAMPFIRE STARTSEveryone thought that the
campfire was great ! It was a beautifully clear night, the fire burnt down
precisely on schedule; the skits were good; the cheers were new - and
appropriate. Everyone knew the words to the songs - and sang in tune (especially
the adults !). How can you improve on that ? Well, here are a few ideas to add
to your repertoire of campfire
Imagine the scene at your next campfire. Everyone has walked
into the campfire circle, your opening is inspirational but everyone is
wondering why the fire isn't lit yet. You then lead off with a short story to
fit the circumstances and then ask for everyone's help in calling on the
appropriate spirits to light the ceremonial fire. A short pause, then.....
FLASH! ..... the campfire is roaring away and yet no-one was anywhere near the
fire to light it !
campfire starts may help you add that touch of
mystique to a potentially memorable occasion.
Mechanical Fire Starts1] Take a 2 x 4 piece of
wood, about 3 - 4 inches long. In the middle of this drill one 3/8" hole all the
way through. This should be large enough to put a large nail or spike through
and secure the wood to the ground. Still with this same piece of wood, drill as
many 1/8" diameter holes in it that you can, but not all the way through the
wood. A drill guide will help you to get all these holes the same depth. The
depth will be determined by the length of the blue tip wood matches that you
should then place in these holes, leaving only the match heads
slightly above the wood surface.
Take a second
piece of 2 x 4 wood and glue some sandpaper to
one side. Also secure a small "eye" screw to one end.
two blocks of wood together with rubber bands (after staking the first piece of
wood in the middle of your fire
lay), and surround with plenty of dry kindling.
Attach a wire to the
"eye" screw and, at the appropriate moment, pull. The friction of the sandpaper
against the match heads will cause them to ignite, thereby setting the kindling
2] The "Flaming Arrow"
is a traditional favourite. Drive a stake a little beyond the heart of the fire
lay, as it is being laid. From this stake run a length of nylon fishing line up
a nearby high point and tie securely so that the line is very
taut. The angle should be sufficient to ensure a smooth and
fairly rapid decent of the 'arrow' otherwise you run the risk of the flame
burning through the fishing line before the arrow
reaches the fire.
The arrow is attached to the line
through two spools (so make sure you thread the spools onto the line before you
tie it off !) To the head of the arrow secure a bundle of dry flammable
material. At the appropriate time during the introductory
story, an assistant lights the arrow and releases it to
down to set the fire alight.
One of the benefits of using fishing line for the line to
the fire, is that once the fire is alight the fishing line will burn through and
the assistant can then retrieve the line without those attending the campfire
being aware of it. If you find that the fishing line does not work for you, use
wire instead, but tie the wire to fishing line where it passes
through the fire lay. This piece will burn away when he fire
is lit, allowing you to retrieve the length of wire.
3] Variations on the above method include tying the
flammable material directly around a weighted spool and sending that
down the line to create a 'fire-ball' effect.
I've also heard of firework sparklers being attached to the
to give quite a spectacular impression.
4] One idea included in several scouter resource books is to
have a candle pre-lit in the fire lay, but covered by a #10 Can. The candle is
secured to a wooden base with a line attached to
it. At the appropriate moment, pull the candle out from the
can and the kindling will catch fire.
Electrical Fire StartsWhen setting up electrical
fire starts, the weight of the wire used to generate heat will depend on the
size of the battery you intend to use and the distance between the battery and
the ignition device. Practise beforehand will enable you to properly rig your
fire start, but , as a guide, use fine wire for a 6 volt battery source. If your
power source is a 12 volt car battery a
heavier wire will be required.
1] Steel Wool and "D" cell batteries
are frequently used in survival techniques as an emergency method of starting a
fire. Based on this principal, one camp fire start idea is to use steel
wool in the fire lay (surrounded by small dry kindling) remotely
attached to a car battery. The battery could be disguised by
hiding in a box that would double as a seat for the Campfire Leader, with a
switch on the side of the box to complete the
electrical circuit and start off your fire.
2] A variation on the
above involves a little more creativity with the electrical connections. From
the disguised car battery/campfire seat, you'll need 3 electrical circuits and
switches. Switch #1 connects to a yellow taillight secured in the
fire and hidden under kindling. Switch #2 is hooked up to a
two more light bulbs. Switch #3 hooks up to steel wool, as detailed
in the previous method.
As part of your
campfire opening, get everyone to assist by blowing towards the fire. As they do
so, throw switch #1 and everyone should see a yellow glow coming through the
off the switch after a second or two.
Obviously not everyone was helping or blowing hard enough,
so get them to blow again. Throw switch #2 and a stronger light will be seen in
the fire. Turn the switch off after maybe five seconds.
One last time ! Obviously it was the Scouters who weren't
trying hard enough. As everyone blows hard for the last time, trigger
the third switch to set the fire alight.
Remember to pull the lights attached to Switches #1 & #2
out of the fire lay before you set the fire going, unless you want to
compete with exploding light bulbs !
Take a block of scrap 2" x 4" with a saw cut through the centre line. Two nails
are driven in at either end of the block on opposite sides of the saw cut. These
nails will provide
'terminals' to hook up to the power source. Insert an uncovered
paper match book into the saw cut, and thread a
very fine piece of wire through the match heads, connect the wire to the
'terminals'. Attach the wires from your power source also to the
'terminals' after connecting them through some switching
When a current is passed through the wire, heat will be generated which will
ignite the matches and then set off your
4] Take a bunch of friction type
matches and secure with a rubber band. The bigger the bunch, the more
spectacular will be the fire start. Then take a metal spring from a
spring-loaded pen and stretch this spring to be slightly larger than the
your bundle of matches. Lay the spring through the matches, so
that it is touching the match heads. Place this bundle on
kindling in your fire lay.
Remotely attach a battery to the ends of the spring wire,
through a switching mechanism. At the correct time, throw the switch and the
spring will generate electrical heat which will ignite the
5] This next idea builds on the
previous one, but requires a little more creative electrical and carpentry
skills. Once you've set it up, however, it could be either your primary fire
method or a back-up method if "Plan A" fails.
Take a piece of deadwood about 5-6 feet in length and at
least 1 1/2 inches in diameter at the base. Carefully drill a hole vertically
into the base, of a sufficient depth/breadth to hold your battery power source.
Run wires (covered where exposure is
not necessary) from the battery up the outside of the staff, with
one of the wires going through
a simple switch set at about the 4 foot mark. The ends of the wires should be
stripped and terminate about 8-10 inches below the top end of the staff. Wrap
several layers of dry flammable material around the first 8-10 inches
from the top of the staff, secure with wire.
Just below the flammable material, tape an open book of
matches and run a fine wire, from the wires attached to the
battery/switch, through the match heads.
staff away from your body - yeh, really this is a good idea ! - and trigger the
switch to light the match heads which will then catch the flammable material.
Your flaming torch can then light the campfire. Since you always keep a bucket
of water near your fire, extinguish the torch after use and it'll be able
to be used again.
Chemical Fire StartsIn the fire lay, place a
pre-prepared piece of 2 x 4 wood, with four 6 inch nails driven partially into
it. Between the nails, on the wood, place a small aluminum tart cup with at
tablespoons of Potassium Permanganate (available from most
pharmacy's) in it. Supported on the heads of the 4 nails
place a second aluminum cup that has had three or four small holes punched in
the base. Tilt this cup to one side by placing a twig
across two of the nails and then balance the cup so it is
supported. In this cup
place a quantity of Glycerine (also available from Pharmacy's) - but not enough
so that it trickles through the holes. The twig should have a length of fishing
tied to it, with the line stretching away from the fire lay.
By pulling on the fishing line and
removing the supporting twig, the cup containing Glycerin will drop to rest
horizontally and the glycerine will spread out over the cup's base. A couple of
drops will then fall through the pre-punched holes and onto the
After a short pause
the glycerine will react with the Potassium Permanganate and create a flame
which will need to catch your
kindling thereby setting the fire lay ablaze.
2] Take a model rocket igniter
(available at most hobby shops) and pass the igniter through the inside of a
paper baggy leaving two little wires sticking out. Then carefully remove the
contents of a "Coloured Flower Bloom" or "Giant Fountain" firework (use
only one) and place into the paper baggy.
Attach the clips from a model rocket firing device to the
two wires coming out of the baggy. Prepare the mechanism by pulling the safety
pin. Then, when you're ready, press the firing button
and POOF!, another magic fire start.
The next two ideas
are particularly clever, and I'll quote from training material prepared by Bill
Glover, DRC (Training),
Southern Alberta Region, as he explains them excellently....
3] Crush 1
teaspoon of iodine crystals to a very fine powder, then mix with 2 teaspoons of
powdered aluminium. IT IS CRITICAL
THAT THIS MIXTURE REMAINS ABSOLUTELY DRY.
Place this mixture in the fire lay
on a piece of plywood, forming a volcano shaped mound. When the participants are
gathered around the campfire, ask if anyone has a canteen of water in case the
fire gets 'out of hand' (you may want to set this up beforehand). Pat your
pockets as if looking for a match, but finding none, ask to borrow some water.
Sprinkle it on the fire lay (ensure a few drops hit the iodine/aluminium
mixture) and you will be greeted by billowing purple smoke, followed by deep red
flames. Someone is bound to ask, "OK. So how do you put it out ?" Simply tell
them you'll throw matches on it !
Note: The powdered iodine "evaporates" very quickly. As a
result this mixture must be used within about 10 minutes of
A teaspoon of Pinesol or Pine Oil is
placed in a shallow container within the fire lay. The story that Bill uses to
introduce this magic fire start is based on the ashes from a
previous campfire. The "Ashes" are a half a cup of HTH Granulated
When the two are combined, they produce a large quantity of white smoke,
followed by flames. This is a relatively slow reaction, so Bill opens the
campfire with the following
"As we gather here tonight, for our formal campfire, I think
back to the closing campfire from last year. It was such a great fire, and the
feelings of love and friendship so strong. In order to try and rekindle those
feeling for our fire tonight, I would like
to add some of the ashes from last years fire. Now, before I
light the fire tonight, I would
like you all to look at this pile of wood, and think about your own feelings
about last year's
fire, and what made it special for you."
SPECIAL EFFECTSOnce your camp fire is nicely
roaring, it may be appropriate to add 'special effect' flames to enhance a story
or just close down
the camp fire ceremony with a little more magic.
Try adding a spray of chemicals to
the fire. The following can either be sprinkled on the logs as you build the
fire lay or added to the fire itself to enhance a story or activity. They all
create a flare of coloured flame than can be really effective if
|Yellow ||potassium nitrate (salt petre)|
| ||sodium chloride (table salt)|
| ||copper sulphate|
|Purple ||lithium chloride|
|Red ||strontium nitrate|
|Orange ||calcium chloride ("Road Salt")|
|Silver ||powdered aluminium|
|Gold ||iron filings|
|Red || strontium nitrate |
|equal parts by weight.|
|Green ||potassium nitrate |
|equal parts by weight.|
|equal parts by weight.
Where the above chemicals or compounds are not readily
available from Hardware/Grocery Stores or the local Pharmacy, check the
'Yellow Pages' for a chemical supply company.
In talking to your pharmacist (for example) please ensure
that you have developed some sort of level of comfort with the owner before you
start asking for a variety of chemicals. Let them know the purpose for the
chemicals, and that you are a registered
scouter not some closet pyromaniac !
One method of adding chemicals to
a campfire without anyone being aware that it was done is to use a
photographer's airbulb release. These use a tiny black airhose attached to a
squeeze-bulb trigger. The airhose can be buried so as to remain unseen, and the
simple act of stepping on the airbulb (perhaps further hidden under a piece of
bark) will blow the spray of
chemicals onto the fire.
Another method is to take a six
inch long piece of 1" copper pipe and stuff 4" pieces of good quality lawn
soaker hose into both ends (don't use the clear type of hose). Placed in the
fire you'll have an abundance of coloured flames. Using 2 or 3 of
these can create a super effect.
option is to pre-make "shots" that can be flipped into the fire. A "shot" is
made by creating a tightly rolled ball of paper, dipped in wood glue and the
roll in a tray of the chosen chemical. The chemical will coat the outside of the
ball and react when thrown into the fire. Store these "shots" in an egg
carton until needed - one "shot" per egg carton section !
Here's another 'sparkling thought' from the pages of The
Leader. You need enough sugar to give everyone a small handful. After closing
the campfire, have everyone walk past the fire embers and toss their sugar onto
the fire. You can compare the flashing sparks and quick flares to happy
thoughts, or simply enjoy these
thoughts in silence.
PHYSICAL LOCATIONIf you want to make your campfire
even more memorable (is this possible? - you ask) consider the actual location
of your camp fire. Anyone can light a fire in the middle of an open field -
why don't you try something different ?
If you're camping by a lake, why not construct a solid raft
and have the fire burning on it? Lighting it out of sight of your assembled
audience, then allowing it to drift into position behind the camp fire leader
will create a very special image. Remember to suitably anchor the raft so that
it doesn't keep
drifting past you !
An alternative may be to have the fire towed in by canoe
(two towing with a third canoe to provide a trailing anchor). The canoeist's can
bring the fire raft in and beach it on the shore
in front of the assembly.
Back on dry land, why not
construct your fire lay a couple of feet above the ground on a lashed frame?
More tricky yet would be to have the fire lay built on a secure frame and then
hoisted (using rope and pulley's) some distance above the ground. Once the fire
is lit, using a "magic fire start" idea, the campfire could then be lowered to
the ground to create another memorable
When you have a particularly large group of participants at
a campfire, instead on one central fire why not consider having three or four
fires in the circle ? In addition to giving a greater illusion of warmth to
participants, a 'stage' is naturally formed between the fires for the campfire
any groups doing skits, etc..
CONCLUSIONAs the flames from the fire burn down,
and participants slowly walk away in wonderment and appreciation, reflect on
your achievement. A campfire can be a memorable occasion for youth and
adult alike, but it doesn't happen by accident.
The day was long, we've worked and played. And round this
fire, we've good friends made; We've shared a friendship fine and deep,
And now this circle leaves, to sleep.
As Campfire Leader you have put a lot of time and effort
into planning, setting the scene, and stage-managing the evenings activities.
Now it is time for you to walk away from the dying embers, reflect on your
success, enjoy a time of friendship and
fellowship with the scouts and scouters.
Sit back, relax, and
start to figure out how you're going to lead your next magic campfire so that
it's even more memorable than
this one !
Good Luck, have fun, and let me know how it goes.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI am particularly indebted to
Scouter Bill Glover, DRC (Training), Southern Alberta Region, who not only set
me on the trail of collecting these ideas, but he also provided me with a copy
of material he had gathered for a training course conducted
A large vote of thanks is also due
to the many contributors from the International Scouter Echo (see The Leader -
Aug/Sept '92) who provide tangible proof and practical experience of the meaning
of Worldwide Brotherhood of Scouting. Not only is there an unparalleled depth of
knowledge available for anyone to draw on, but - even though we may never
actually meet one another - I consider everyone of them a true friend. In
particular, special recognition is due to the following who provided much of the
information and a lot of inspiration :
Scouter Dave Tracewell, Lodi, California (&
moderator of The Scouter Echo)
Scouter Randy Carnduff, Regina, Saskatchewan.
Scouter Fred Welch, Colorado.
Scouter Brad George, Oklahoma.
Scouter Carl McCaskey, Florida.
Scouter John Meed, Regina, Sask.
Scouter Kihe Blackeagle, Texas.
Last, but certainly not least, the greatest acknowledgement
has to go to the youth members we do this for. They come in all shapes &
sizes; attitudes & aptitudes; motivated & mischievous;
but they make it all worthwhile.
Thank you, one